Squint, also known as strabismus, is a condition in which the two eyes point in different directions. It affects approximately 4 out of every 100 children One eye may turn either in, or out while the other eye aims straight ahead. Due to this condition, both eyes do not always aim simultaneously at the same object. This results in a partial or total loss of stereo vision and binocular depth perception. The eye turns may be visible at all times or may come and go. In some cases, the eye misalignments are not obvious to the untrained observer.




Esotropia, where the eye turns inward, is the most common type of strabismus in infants.


Exotropia, or an outward turning of the eye, is another common type of strabismus. This occurs most often when a child is focusing on distant objects.


Strabismus can be:

  • congenital, meaning a person is born with it
  • hereditary, or running in families, suggesting a genetic link
  • the result of an illness or long-sightedness
  • due to a lesion on a cranial nerve

If the eye cannot focus the light as it comes in through the lens, this is known as a refractive error.

Other problems that can lead to strabismus include:

  • myopia, or short-sightedness
  • hypermetropia, or long-sightedness
  • astigmatism, where the cornea is not curved properly

A refractive error tends to make the affected eye turn, in an attempt to get better focus.

Strabismus that results from refractive errors tends to emerge later on, usually around the age of 2 years or older.

Hydrocephalus can also lead to strabismus. Hydrocephalus is a condition in which too much cerebrospinal fluid builds up in and around the brain.

Some viral infections, such as measles, can cause strabismus. Other conditions that can cause it include Noonan Syndrome and some other genetic conditions.

Adult Strabismus

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Childhood Strabismus

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Non Surgical Management of Squint

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Strabismus Surgery

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